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iAspire Reflect

Using Videos During Teacher Observations Part 4 – Introducing iAspire Reflect

In our previous three posts, we have discussed my own personal struggles with the teacher observation process, creating an environment where teachers self reflect, and sharing a wonderful resource called the Best Foot Forward Project from the Center for Education Policy Research at Harvard University.    Properly evaluating teachers where a focus is on concrete evidence (video) can be a difficult transition for many schools and organizations.  Why?  Mostly it’s because it is not the norm in education and/or is not what they currently do.

To me, all decisions come down to purpose.  In the words of Simon Sinek in his wonderful book Start with Why: “For great leaders, The Golden Circle is in balance. They are in pursuit of WHY, they hold themselves accountable to HOW they do it, and WHAT they do serves as the tangible proof of what they believe.”  If you haven’t heard about Simon Sinek’s Golden Circle, below is a 3:40 clip of him explaining it:

So what exactly is iAspire Reflect?  iAspire Reflect is a simple-to-use software that allows educators to quickly upload video, add tags to the video (questioning, lesson objective, etc), share videos with colleagues, and search using a variety of criteria. iAspire Reflect also allows you to create a video library of the very best teaching in your organization.

The why behind  iAspire Reflect is to help create an environment where self-reflection and observations based on concrete evidence becomes the norm.  I think about the professional athletes of the world and how often they watch game film.  Being from Indiana (although a Chicago Bears Fan…), I have to make a reference to Peyton Manning, arguably one of the best football players of all time.  It was not Peyton’s elite athleticism that separated him from other quarterbacks. It was his ability and initiative to prepare for opponents that set him apart.  Peyton spent countless hours watching game film.  He reviewed each practice and game from multiple angles, identifying what the opponents were doing, their tendencies, and determining a plan based on what he saw.  He didn’t rely solely on his memory or what his coach told him to do.  Instead, he took complete and total ownership of the entire process and grounded his decisions in concrete evidence – what the “tape” showed him.  Here is an article from the New York Post on Peyton’s video prowess.  He was a machine when it came to preparation and watching video.

In an education environment, video observations allow the teacher and/or other educator to watch a clip, rewind, and watch again.  What specific behaviors were most effective for the teacher, and how do you know?  What exactly did the students do and say as a result of the teacher actions?  This is where recording and watching a lesson becomes extremely powerful.

Another why behind iAspire Reflect is to help alleviate some of the struggles that I faced when observing teachers.  No need to rehash all the struggles – you can read them again here.  Without something concrete, I would not be able to provide the specific actions or dialogue for everything that happened, the teacher would be basing his/her reflections on what he/she remembered, and my own filters would be a barrier to what I was able to capture and document.

As we have been developing iAspire Reflect for teacher observations using video, we have had the privilege to speak with schools across the country to gain their input on our development.  When we discussed our idea for iAspire Reflect, about 95% have been very intrigued and excited by the possibility.  In fact, most of the final responses from these conversations sounded a lot like this: “Can I try it?” or “How can I get started with this?”.

 

To learn more, please visit www.iaspireapp.com/reflect

 

Teacher Evaluation

Using Videos During Teacher Observations Part 3 – Helping You Get Started

The reflection that I did myself, when I videoed, offered me more opportunity for growth than anything an outsider could do for me. Watching my kids, what went on in my room, how I handled it, and things I said—that was more important than any sit-down that I could have with anybody [else]. ” Best Foot Forward teacher, North Carolina (2013)1

In this third installment of our Using Videos During Teacher Observations series, we will dive right in to what the research says with regard to using videos to support teacher observations.  Our previous two posts can be found here: My Own Struggles and Creating an environment where teachers self reflect.

I’m guessing most of you don’t formally use videos during your teacher observations.  Coaching?  Maybe.  The observer sitting down, watching the lesson on video, and providing feedback specific based on what was seen on film?  Probably not.  There are a lot of reasons why schools are hesitant to use videos.  According to Harvard University’s Center for Education Policy Research and their Best Foot Forward Project, these reasons may include but are not limited to:

  • Compliance Culture
  • Rudimentary Reflection
  • Inflexible Time
  • Inadequate content area feedback

I’ve personally had conversations with several administrators who had various other reasons why they aren’t using videos for teacher observations.  These reasons include their Union won’t allow it, they don’t have the appropriate technology, there is not a simple way to do it, and they are afraid of teachers putting on the proverbial “dog and pony show”.  Others had concerns about students being recorded and what would be required from a policy perspective to allow for recording in the classroom.  However 95% of these administrators rated the potential of video reflections/observations as having a major impact in their school.  In other words, most (95%) think using videos during observations would make a positive difference for them and their teachers.  They just aren’t doing it.

The aforementioned Best Foot Forward Project from Harvard University does a fantastic job providing specific suggestions to break through these barriers.  Their toolkit is simply amazing.  If you haven’t reviewed their toolkit, you should download it now.  The Toolkit provides support in the following areas:

  • Leveraging Video for Learning
    • Video for self-reflection, peer collaboration, virtual coaching, evaluation, and building a video library
  • Cultivating Trust in Video Observations
    • Create a safe environment for teachers and communicate with parents and manage student privacy concerns
  • Turnkey Technology: Setting up Schools for Effective Implementation
    • Choose the right technology, set up your infrastructure, train teachers and observers
  • Measuring Readiness and Assessing Success
    • Ensure readiness, Assess Success
  • Appendix
  • References

Speaking of the dog and pony show, The Best Foot Forward project addressed that directly in its Leveraging Video for Learning section: “If teachers control the camera, they are able to choose a videotaped lesson that they believe represents a comprehensive view of their best work.  Not only does this process increase teacher agency in evaluation, but it also encourages teachers to rewatch several lessons and contemplate what constitutes effective, evaluation-worthy instruction before choosing what will be submitted to the administrator.”  Later it reads “…teachers put their ‘best foot forward’, but this did not fundamentally change the distribution of observation scores between teachers.”2  For a more detailed quantitative review, please see the Best Foot Forward research brief.

The Best Foot Forward Project also includes a self-guided module for analyzing videos of your own instruction, a self-analysis noticing rubric, coaching conversation scripts, and many other worthwhile resources.

If you are considering using videos to support teacher reflection, coaching, and/or evaluation, the guidance from the Best Foot Forward project may help you map an implementation schedule and feel comfortable doing so.  There are definitely logistics to consider, timing issues, collective bargaining disagreements, and other barriers you will face, but best practice suggests using video can have a positive impact on your entire observation process.

Next week we will take a look at how a professional athlete uses video to improve his game, and you may even learn a little bit about Simon Sinek’s Golden Circle.

 

Have you used videos during any of your observations, coaching cycles, or evaluations?  If so, how did it go?

 

1Fullerton, J., Greenberg, M., Kane, T., Le, L., Quinn, D., Thal, D., & Zelaya, S. (2015). Leveraging Video for Learning: Strategies for Using Video Observations for Professional Growth [PDF]. Center for Education Policy Research. p. 2

2Fullerton, J., Greenberg, M., Kane, T., Le, L., Quinn, D., Thal, D., & Zelaya, S. (2015). Leveraging Video for Learning: Strategies for Using Video Observations for Professional Growth [PDF]. Center for Education Policy Research. p. 11-12

5 Best Practices for Classroom Walkthroughs

[Infographic] 5 Best Practices for Classroom Walkthroughs

Our blog post on the 5 best practices for classroom walkthroughs was so popular, we decided to turn it into this easy-to-share infographic.  There’s nothing better than a simple, concise visual reference.  As they say, a picture’s worth a thousand words!

Classroom Walkthrough

Resources:

http://www.doe.in.gov/sites/default/files/turnaround-principles/classroom-walkthrough-development-samples.pdf

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/dec07/vol65/num04/Classroom_Walk-Throughs.aspx

https://www.naesp.org/resources/2/Principal/2009/M-A_p30.pdf

http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/finding_common_ground/2016/04/the_myth_of_walkthroughs_8_unobserved_practices_in_classrooms.html

https://www.amazon.com/Advancing-Three-Minute-Walk-Through-Mastering-Reflective/dp/1412964571

Best Practices for Classroom Walkthroughs

5 Best Practices for Classroom Walkthroughs

Of all the different components to the various teacher evaluation frameworks out there, the most misused piece is often the classroom walkthrough. It’s no surprise given there’s much less discussion and research on classroom walkthroughs compared to formal observations. In fact, if you googled walkthrough right now you’d get results mostly about video games! In her research, Carolyn Downey and colleagues offered this definition for a classroom walkthrough, “short, informal visitations to classes followed occasionally by reflective questioning.”. In this way, classroom walkthroughs are quite different than short classroom observations which are formal and evaluative.

When used correctly, classroom walkthroughs provide the observer with key information they can use to build reflective dialogue with teachers and customize professional development opportunities for teachers. If you follow the 5 best practices outlined below, your walkthroughs will transform your performance evaluation processes into something more meaningful – a framework of self-reflection and self-direction to drive the cycle of continuous improvement.

Here are 5 best practices to follow for classroom walkthroughs:

  1. Classroom walkthroughs should be informal.
    This means that minimal data are collected. Any data that is collected is not shared with the teacher directly, rather the information is used to generate reflective questions.
  2. Classroom walkthroughs should be short.
    Most walkthroughs should be no longer than about 10 minutes – just long enough to gather information on how curriculum and instructional decisions are made.
  3. Classroom walkthroughs should be non-evaluative and nonjudgmental.
    This means no checklists with performance descriptions, and no feedback! The focus isn’t on judging the actions of teachers, but to gather information about decisions teachers make. This allows the observer to take on more of a coaching role with the teacher.
  4. Classroom walkthroughs should be tied to a model of collegial supervision, not conventional supervision.
    This puts the focus on teacher development rather than teacher conformity. Conventional supervision will result in substandard results and even lower job satisfaction. Walkthroughs make supervision practices more collegial and encourage collaboration and ongoing reflective inquiry.
  5. Classroom walkthroughs should be tied to a reflective dialogue process.
    The overarching purpose of walkthroughs is to create high quality reflective questions to guide reflective dialogue with teachers. The goal is for the reflective questions to nurture teachers into deeper self-awareness and self-reflection of their teaching practices. However, dialogue with teachers is not necessary after every completed walkthrough.

At the very core of these best practices is trust. Remember, trust is the foundation upon which all teacher observations and classroom walkthroughs are built. If you stick with the core best practices listed above for classroom walkthroughs, your school will build a cycle of continuous improvement focused more on self-reflection and professional growth instead of mere conformity.

Best Practices for Teacher Observations

Best Practices for Teacher Observations

With so many different frameworks and models for classroom observations out there, it’s no wonder why a large number of educators expressed confusion and frustration with classroom observation and teacher evaluation processes in a 2016 report from the Network for Public Education.  The U.S. Department of Education also indicated as much in their 2015 report on classroom observations to improve teacher practice. Evidently, some educators even need a support group!

Surviving Teacher Observations and Evaluations

The truth is that best practices for classroom observations can be condensed into a concise and practical list of core features essential for reaching the intended outcomes.  This is not a one-size-fits-all approach, but rather a core set of practices to ensure your time is well-spent and delivers results.

  1. Streamline your observation domains and rubrics to your state teaching standards.
    • Domains and rubrics should use clear, observable, and explicit language.  The rubrics/forms should be concise, or they will be cumbersome to both the evaluator and the teacher. Clarify vague content and eliminate redundancies or indicators that are not related to student outcomes.
  2. Observations must be anchored to a strong conversational process such as reflective dialogue or cognitive coaching.
    • The observations must engage evaluators and educators in dialogue that strengthens the knowledge and skills of professional educators in a culture of trust and support.  It’s all about professional growth!
  3. Consider differentiating your observations for entry level teachers and experienced teachers.
    • One-size fits all approaches will not work. Entry level teachers and experienced teachers are in different phases of their professional journey as educators. The types and number of observations for these groups should be different to reflect their different professional needs.  For example, consider more peer-based observations for an established, highly effective teacher.
  4. Develop a variety of observation forms and tools from which to choose (formal, informal, long, short, walkthroughs, co-observations).
    • Every situation is unique, so you need to have a fluid process with a variety of observation types to be flexible and adaptable to the unique professional needs of your staff. Maybe a co-observer is needed at times, especially for ancillary staff (e.g., school psychologists, speech and language pathologists, special education teachers, social workers, guidance counselors).  Maybe frequent, informal walkthroughs are needed to complement the longer, formal observations.
  5. Ensure classroom observations are used for both formative and summative feedback in teacher evaluations per the recommendation of the National Education Association.
    • Formative feedback should be ongoing and assist teachers in real-time regarding their goal-setting and professional learning.  Observations should also contribute to summative feedback to help determine whether standards of practice have been met and to help guide employment decisions.

To the extent that different states allow it, picture your district as a center of innovation to try new observation strategies, produce observation forms that benefit observers and teachers, and even create new observation frameworks.  Remember, your classroom observation and teacher evaluation process shouldn’t make your evaluators’ and teachers’ heads spin causing confusion and frustration.  Stick with the core best practices listed above, and you’ll develop a culture of meaningful and manageable classroom observation and teacher evaluation processes!

How Do You Measure Teacher Effectiveness?

As educators, we have a lot on our plates.  Somewhere among best practice, student relationships, responsive instruction, 21st century skills, and our own families/personal lives we need to find time to reflect.  What is going well for you and your teachers right now?  What is not?  How effective are your teachers?  And probably most importantly, how do you know?

There are a myriad of ways to measure teacher effectiveness.  Rubrics and walkthroughs are the most common ways, but some schools and districts have also included student assessments into the teacher evaluation mix.  Personally, I am a huge fan of the word ‘balance’.  Relying on any one tool to measure all aspects of teacher effectiveness is short-sighted and may result in faulty data or incorrect conclusions being drawn.  Instead, looking at several data points can increase the credibility and validity of data.  This is the concept of data triangulation.

When thinking about data triangulation, consider multiple data points collected in various methods (qualitative and quantitative) and sources, such as:

  • Rubrics: rubrics are powerful and communicate to teachers their performance based on a continuum of effectiveness.  Typically 3 – 5 different descriptions of teacher performance are described with specific teacher actions in each rating category.  Ratings could range from ineffective to highly effective, basic to distinguished, and other categories.  Observers can give very specific feedback to teachers when using rubrics.  Rubrics are typically used for longer observations and final teacher ratings (when applicable) but can also be used for formative feedback throughout the school year.
  • Walkthroughs: walkthroughs are typically meant to be used during shorter classroom visits.  Walkthroughs have the ability to collect big-picture data to determine trends among things like teachers, grade, subjects, buildings, and observers.  Walkthroughs usually have a specific list of possible selectable options in various categories, such as student engagement, types of questions, or instructional strategies being use by the teacher.  Walkthroughs are highly customizable and provide flexibility for organizations to collect data that matters most to them.
  • Short observations: short observations can be very simple in design and are typically used for narrative observations and feedback.  This narrative feedback communicates to teachers what was observed and the observers’ own reflections after the lesson.  Within the feedback could be questions, comments, commendations, and recommendations.
  • Student assessment data: Ultimately the goal of education is for students to do well when taking some form of an assessment.  The assessment could be a performance, creation, reflection, discussion, test/quiz, state assessment, portfolio, etc.  When the assessment itself is valued and reliable, the student data can be a very important part of the teacher effectiveness equation. On the other end, though, if the assessment itself is not valued (think state assessments…) or reliable, perhaps it’s better to consider other assessments for teacher evaluation data points.

There are a few other data points schools could consider when thinking about teacher effectiveness: parent input, student input, and peer input.  All must be carefully considered before deciding to include within your teacher evaluation program.

This leads me to a few questions: what’s best for you and your unique situation?  What information do you want to be able to measure and track?  How do you know that your teachers are performing well or not well in certain areas?  Each school/district/organization will have specific indicators of success based on the the unique community the organization serves.  There is no one-size-fits-all approach that will work for all organizations.  Instead, consider what your collective goals are, what your vision of success means, and align your teacher evaluation program to your goals.

How do you measure the effectiveness of your teachers?